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Exhibitions

Kramskoy, Ivan Nikolayevich

18371887


Painter, drawer, produced lithographs, etchings and sculptures. The portrait genre dominated his work. Born to a family of a secretary in the municipal duma. In 1850 he graduated from the Ostrogozhsk four-year school and worked as a clerk at the municipal duma. His creative work started while working as a finisher at the photography studio of I.F.Alexandrovsky and A.I.Denier in St.Petersburg (1857). From 1857-1863 he studied at the Academy of Arts in the historical painting class under A.T.Markov. In 1863 his painting entitled "Moses Drawing Water out of a Rock" (the painting was lost) won him a small gold medal. In 1863 he led a rebellion of 14 artists, who in the competition for the large gold medal, demanded free choice in the theme for their paintings. As a result he left the Academy with a 2nd class art degree. From 1863-1869 he taught at the School of Drawing of the Society for the Encouragement of Artists. In the late 1860s-1880s he gave painting and drawing classes to the royal family. He organised the Artists' Cooperative in St.Petersburg (1863-1870 a member of the Cooperative). A member of the Academy from 1869. He was one of the founders and ideologist of the STAE (1870), he was elected many times as a member of the Company Board. In 1869 he visited Berlin, Dresden, Antwerp and Paris, and in 1876 he travelled across Italy and in 1878 France. In 1884 he lived and worked in Menton, in southern France. The artist achieved great success in the portrait genre. His early work in the 1860s were produced in Kramskoys favourite graphic technique with the use of sauce, white and Italian pencil. The style in his painted portrait also formed in these years, it is characterized by a simple colour system combined with intricate drawing, light and shade modeling. Restrained aesthetic techniques correspond to the images of the democratic intellectuals, who mostly served as models for Kramskoy. His portraits of cultural personalities, many of which were commissioned by P.M.Tretyakov, are characterized by a profound social and psychological interpretation of the figure. A new theme appeared in the artists creative work in the early 1870s, it was associated with his thoughts regarding moral and ethical issues and his search for the righteous ideal of his time. Art has numerous examples where the motifs taken from the Bible and the New Testament provide a platform for the realization of contemporary ideas and opinions. Kramskoy also used the image in (Christ in the Wilderness, 1872) to embody the ideal of man striving for self-sacrifice for the benefit of society. Another side to the artists creative work is portrayed in paintings, which combine the genre and portrait trend in art (Unknown Woman, 1883; Inconsolable Grief, 1884). Besides numerous portraits the master also worked on commissions from the church to support himself. The contribution made by I.N.Kramskoy in the development of democratic art in the second half of the 19th century is immense, he influenced the art of his time both as an artist, and as an ideologist of the Peredvizhniki movement
Self portrait

1867
oil on canvas
52,7 x 44 (oval)
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

The Mermaids

1871
oil on canvas
88 132
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Fedor Vasiliev

1871
oil on canvas
88,3 68,3
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Taras Shevchenko

1871
oil on canvas
84 65
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Arkhip Kuindzhi

1872
oil on canvas
35,8 28,6
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Christ in the Wilderness

1872
oil on canvas
180 x 210
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Ivan Shishkin

1873
oil on canvas
110,5 78
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Girl with a Loose Braid

1873
oil on canvas
57,2 48,9
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov

1873
Oil on canvas
66 x 57
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Lev Tolstoy

1873
oil on canvas
98 x 79,5
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Forester

1874
oil on canvas
84 62
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Looking Round the Old House

1874
Oil on canvas
93 x 119,3
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Village foreyard in France

1876
Paper, watercolour
24 31,5

Portrait of Vera Tretyakova

1876
oil on canvas
226 148
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Dmitry Grigorovich

1876
oil on canvas
86 68
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Pavel Tretyakov

1876
oil on canvas
59 x 49
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Nikolay Nekrasov

1877
oil on canvas
75 55
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Nikolay Nekrasov in the Period of His "Last Songs"

1877-1878
oil on canvas
105 89
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Alexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko

1878
Oil on canvas
99,8 x 70,8
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin

1879
oil on canvas
88 68
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Vera Nikolayevna Tretyakova

1879
Oil on canvas
92 x 70
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Sofia Nikolayevna Kramskaya

1879
Oil on canvas
95 x 77
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Adrian Viktorovich Prakhov

1879
Oil on canvas
88,5 x 69
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Moonlit Night

1880
oil on canvas
178,8 135,2
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Vasily Vasilievich Samoilov

1881
Oil on canvas
98 x 77
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Nikolai Ivanovich Kramskoy

1882
Oil on canvas
82,2 x 74,7
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Sergei Sergeyevich Botkin

1882
Oil on canvas
70,7 x 57,5
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of a girl in felt hat

1883
Oil on canvas
60,6 x 49,2
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

An Unknown Lady

1883
oil on canvas
75,5 x 99
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Kramskoy Painting a Portrait of His Daughter

1884
oil on canvas
16,5 24
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

A Bunch of Flowers. Phloxes

1884
Oil on canvas
64 x 56
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Inconsolable Grief

1884
oil on canvas
228 x 141
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Female Portrait

1885
oil on canvas
80,4 53,5
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Portrait of Fedor Vasiliev

Circa 1871
Oil on canvas
41,3 x 34,3
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20

Woman Reading. Portrait of Sofia Kramskaya

Not before 1866
oil on canvas
64,5 56
at 10, Lavrushinsky Lane, Hall 20